F.A.C.T. Information: Parental Alienation
More great information is available through F.A.C.T. See our home page at www.fact.on.ca
Some of the Literature on Parental Alienation
Rather than just reading the PAS material here, there is now an opportunity to provide YOUR input into the adoption of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) into the DSM-V. To read more about this, including a message from Dr. Gardner, please click here. We encourage all of you to write, and encourage others to write, to include PAS in DSM-V.
In this section, we have used to power of hypertext to link the footnote numbers to the footnotes and, where we have the material, to the actual referenced material. It is hoped that this will allow you to follow through the material and get all the information that you are seeking. Please note, references are sometimes made to other files on this system, and sometimes to files on other systems, so you may see other files reloading.
We have also made PDF files for printing if you would like hard copy. The PDF "Portable Document Format" is used by Adobe Acrobat and the program that will let you view and print these files is free and has versions for almost any type of workstation operating system in use. The free program that will allow you to view and print these files, on-line or off, is available from Adobe at http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html.
We also have included on a separate page a not-too-complete list of PAS and PAS related sites that we have found on the net. There are many more sites with information. Let us know of any more good ones and we will add them.
We also beginning a section on legal cases in Canada and around the world that deals with PAS in the courts. This section is just starting, and is far from exhaustive. You can see them on our PAS legal page.
Let us know what you think of our files, or about any problems, by emailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Finally, because it is not a journal article, the article on Hostile Aggressive Parenting is located further down the list. You can get to it quickly by clicking here.
Much of the material posted here was the result of the considerable knowledge, persistence and hard work of Tom in Los Angeles, USA. Thanks Tom!
Parents Who Have Successfully Fought Parent Alienation Syndrome by A. Jayne Major, Ph.D. from her website www.livingmedia2000.com. This article is a FABULOUS summary of PAS that is very readable and complete. It is, seemingly, only published on her website that is providing information about her parenting course to potential instructors but, because it was so good I have reformatted it and added it to our collection. (It was so good I was ready to sign up for the course!) This document is also available in PDF format.
What you do and don’t do when as a loving parent you are confronted with a severe case of PAS in your child by William Kirkendale. Mr. Kirkendale is a father with a child he has not seen for a considerable length of time, and he has put together a list of some of his DO'S and DONTS that many of us have learned too late. Some of his suggestions, especially about approaching the court or accessing the media, are not particularly appropriate in Canada but the underlying fire is right on target. This material has been reformatted from a web page on www.mall4us.com/parentnPAS.htm. Mr. Kirkendale maintans a web site at www.familycourts.com. This document is also available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues by Ian Turkat is available in PDF format from the Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, Vol. 18-1, 2002, pp.131-176. (which is available on-line).
Response to Kelly/Johnson Artilce by Richard A. Gardner from Speak Out for Children (a publication of the Children's Rights Council), 17(2):6-10, 2002. This is Gardner's response to the ``Northern California'' group of psychologists to preempt and redefine Parental Alienation (without the Syndrome). This group includes those PhDs who worked with Judith Wallerstein on her work. This is a real threat to the children who have been damaged by the PAS -- the purpose is really to ensure that the abuse of the children can continue pursuant to the ``feminist'' (and not parental) dogma. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Does DSM-IV Have Equivalents for the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) Diagnosis? by Richard A. Gardner (Unpublished Manuscript) Accepted for Publication 2002. This is a very interesting article that outlines the similar, but not the same, disorders actually included in DSM-IV at this point. The article is quite good in explaining the reasons why PAS is indeed a syndrome, and how it is different from other conditions. As a bonus, some of the similar or contributing conditions that impact children, alientators and target parents are outlined -- this is quite important to target parents, and lawyers, involved with an alienating parent. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
The Role of the Judiciary in the Entrenchment of the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) by Richard A. Gardner, 2002. This is a great article that points out the faults and contributions of the judiciary in ensuring that alienating parents abuse their children -- all in the mistaken ``best interests'' of someone. This article and the tables referred to within it can be downloaded from Dr. Gardner's website at http://www.rgardner.com/refs/ar11w.html and http://www.rgardner.com/refs/3pastables.html. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
The Empowerment of Children in the Development of Parental Alienation Syndrome by Richard A. Gardner from The American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2002, 20(2):5-29. This article deals with the empowerment of children suffering PAS by the alienator, therapists, lawyers and the judiciary as a major component of the syndrome. Without addressing the intrinsic contribution of all these adults, supposedly working in the ``best interests of the child'' can we hope to stop the destruction of these children. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Disputes? by Richard A. Gardner from The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(2):93-115, (2002). Gardner clears the air about the debate between the watered-down, wide ranging ``Parental Alienation'' and the collection of symptoms that identify and define the ``Parental Alienation Syndrome''. For those who think that PA has much at all to do with PAS, this is a `must read'. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Denial of the Parental Alienation Syndrome Also Harms Women by Richard A. Gardner from American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(3):191-202 (2002). The article discusses impact on children and families by the denial of the condition of PAS. Denial is found by the patient in many medical conditions, but when the practionners deny the disease, there is no hope for the victims. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Comments on Carol S. Bruch’s Article "Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation: Getting it Wrong in Child Custody Cases" by Richard A. Gardner from Family Law Quarterly, 35(3):527-552, 2001. Gardner addresses an article by a "law researcher" in the Family Law Quarterly that really simply rehashes the same tired old "feminist" myths that are trotted out to ensure that the children are not protected from alienation. Bruch's paper is available here in PDF format only. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Current Controversies Regarding Parental Alienation Syndrome by Richard A. Warshak from American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Volume 19, No. 3, 2001, p. 29-59. An excellent article about PAS, the current attempt to redefine it to talk only of the "alienated child" and not the abuse, and about some of the strange reasons made up by others about PAS. This is a great companion to Dr. Warshak's booklet "Parental Alienation Syndrome in Court" (see the Book Section of the FACT site, or Dr. Warshak's site directly). This is an important paper to read. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Should Courts Order PAS Children to Visit/Reside with the Alienated Parent? by Richard A. Gardner from The American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2001, 19(3):61-106. This article is an outline of the futility of not changing access or custody away from an alienating parent. In 100% of the cases that a change in access or custody did occur, the PAS either diminished or disappeared. In 91% of the cases where a change did not occur, the situation did not improve or degenerated even further. "PAS therapy" does not work alone to protect the children, despite the judges wishing it did. Make sure you give this one to your lawyer. This document is also available in PDF format.
Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of Parental Alienation Syndrome by Richard A. Gardner from The American Journal of Family Therapy. 27:195-212, 1999. This article is a GREAT outline of therapy for the moderate case of PAS that deals with the very specific and knitty-gritty things that the courts and the therapists must do if the therapy is to work. This document is also available in PDF format.
Questioning the Mental Health Expert's Custody Report by Ira Daniel Turkat, Ph.D. from the American Journal of Family Law, Volume 7, 175-179 (1993). This article is not specifically about PAS. However, it is an EXCELLENT article to look at when you are selecting an assessor or an expert in a legal case. I wish selecting an expert was easy - this article does give you some suggestions that are extremely relevant. This document is also available in PDF format.
Dr. Richard A. Gardner, M.D., who initially derived the name Parental Alienation Syndrome put out a flyer (also in PDF format to advertise his book The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals and Legal Professionals (available through his website at http://www.rgardner.com/). The flyer had a number of very interesting and useful attachments that contain some basic information on PAS. The attachments are:
In addition, he has put out another couple of small pieces of information:
- DEFINITION OF THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME (also in PDF format).
- THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME IS NOT THE SAME AS PROGRAMMING ("BRAINWASHING") (also in PDF format).
- THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME AND BONA FIDE ABUSE AND/OR NEGLECT (also in PDF format).
- THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME AS A FORM OF CHILD ABUSE (also in PDF format).
- "THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME DOES NOT EXIST BECAUSE IT IS NOT IN DSM-IV" (also in PDF format).
- "THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME IS NOT A SYNDROME" (also in PDF format).
- "PEOPLE WHO DIAGNOSE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME ARE SEXIST" (also in PDF format).
- THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME AND SEX-ABUSE ACCUSATIONS (also in PDF format).
- THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME AND "PARENTAL ALIENATION" (also in PDF format).
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF THE THREE TYPES OF PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME (also in PDF format).
- DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT OF THE THREE TYPES OF PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME (also in PDF format).
- Addendum I—June 1999 which is meant to be some more up-to-date information on PAS than contained in the 2nd edition,
- Addendum—March 2000 which is meant to be some more up-to-date information on PAS than contained in the 2nd edition, and
- an updated Addendum—March 2000 which is meant to be some more up-to-date information on PAS than contained in the 2nd edition and mentions the Rachael Foundation, and
- Misperceptions versus Facts About Richard A. Gardner, M.D. which is another defensive piece as the result of the false accusations against Dr. Gardner made because they don't like his theory (ironic, isn't it?).
Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS): Sixteen Years Later by Richard A. Gardner from Academy Forum, 2001, 45(1):10-12. This provides a summary of the issues related to PAS as they have evolved over the last 16 years. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Excerpt from Dr. Rybicki's forthcoming book on Expert Witness Testimony & Forensic Psychology by Daniel J. Rybicki. This looks like it will be a great book. The material covers a lot of material including alienation techniques, susceptable children, the negatives of the diagnosis according to the detractors, and what evaluators should be careful with. A good read. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Remarriage as a Trigger of Parental Alienation Syndrome by Richard A, Warshak from The American Journal of Family Therapy, 28:229-241, 2000. While this document attempts to deal with some of the specifics of parental alienation relative to remarriage of divorced or separated parties, there is a wealth of information about PAS in general as well, including some discussion of therapies to deal with PAS. This document is available in PDF format.
"Parental Alienation" by Joel R. Brandes from the New York Law Journal, March 26, 2000 provides an interesting look at Parental Alination in New York, where it is supposed to be recognised. This document is not yet available in PDF format. This article was available through the author's website at http://www.brandeslaw.com/parental_alienation.htm, but appears to have been moved.
Articles in Peer-Review Journals on the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) by Richard A. Gardner, M.D. is a description of the nature of PAS (mostly the material in the list above) and a compilation of citations by the researcher who introduced the term. This is available through a link to his company, Creative Therapeutics at http://www.rgardner.com/. This particular paper as also been captured into a PDF format (January 6, 2001 version).
On the site, Dr. Gardner also has a list of legal citations indicating times that testimony on PAS has been admitted in the courts of various jurisdictions. The site is set up to allow you to order books, including his The Parental Alienation Syndrome (2nd edition) directly.
Rye Hospital Program For Treating Children Affected by Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), as published on the website "divorcedfather.com", written by Edward M. Stephens, M.D., provides some information on the diagnosis and treatment of Parental Alienation Syndrome. This article was initially available at http://www.divorcedfather.com/fathers-rights-child-custody/pas-rye.htm, but appears to have been move. The pagehad also been captured, and is available, in PDF format.
Mediation and Parental Alienation Syndrome: Considerations for an Intervention Model by Anita Vestal from the Family and Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, October, 1999, p. 487-503. Excellent, and long, paper on parental alienation and mediation. Parents, lawyers and judges should read this. This article is an updated and peer-reviewed version of the article "Perspectives on Parental Alienation, Child Custody and Dispute Resolution Systems," which won the essay award from the American Bar Association (see below). This document is also available in PDF format.
Guidelines for Assessing Parental Preference in Child-Custody Disputes by Richard A. Gardner, MD from the Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 1999, 30(1/2):1-9. This goes through the Michigan child-custody guidelines with Gardner's opinion and PAS comments throughout. This document is aldo available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation and the Judiciary by Dr L. F. Lowenstein from the Medico-Legal JournalVol.67 Part 3, 1999, p. 121-123. This is a short piece on the problems of the judiciary in solving PAS, their reluctance to that the necessary action, and the results of their lack of judicial action. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation: Not in the best interest of the children by Douglas Darnall from the North Dakota Law Review, Volume 75, 1999, p 323-364. Excellent and long essay on parental alienation and parental alienation syndrome and the places that lawyers and judges need to fit into the process to help the children. Darnall's book, DIVORCE CASUALTIES: PROTECTING YOUR CHILDREN FROM PARENTAL ALIENATION, that is mentioned in the article can be purchased through the FACT book section. This document is also available in PDF format.
Differentiating between Parental Alienation Syndrome and Bona Fide Abuse-Neglect by Richard A. Gardner from The American Journal of Family Therapy, Volume 27, Number 2, p 97-107 (April-June 1999). Talk about a HOT new article! The article looks at the differences in children, but most specifically adults, under a PAS situation with false allegations of abuse or neglect, and the same where there is true abuse-neglect. Truly makes one wonder seriously about the inducers of PAS. This document is also available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: How to Detect It and What to Do About It by J. Michael Bone and Michael R. Walsh as published in The Florida Bar Journal, Volume 73, Number 3, March 1999, p. 44-48. This new article is meant for lawyers. It provides a higher level look at PAS, provides the indications that a lawyer or judge can use to tell if PAS is present, and deals with the absolute need of the courts to operate swiftly if PAS is detected. A quote from the article: "Any attempt at alienating children from the other parent should be seen as a direct and willful violation of one of the prime duties of parenthood". This document is also available in PDF format.
Alienation And Alignment Of Children by Philip M. Stahl from the California Psychologist, March 1999, Vol. 32, No. 3, p 23ff. An outline of PAS, the his idea of the characteristics of the parents and children, and, to some degree, how treatment methods. The article includes a summary of the milder suggestions for treatment of severe PAS -- including allowing the abuse to continue (the court's general answer). This document is also available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) by L. F. Lowenstein as published in Justice of the Peace, Vol. 163 No. 3, 16 January 1999, p 47-50. This article is meant as a summary for justices in the UK. It concludes reminding judges that: "Any parent who practises PAS must ultimately be dealt with severely by the court. PAS is a kind of brainwashing which leads to suffering for all concerned, either in the short or long-term. Both parents must be viewed as having the right and the obligation to play a vital role on the care, guidance and love provided for their children." This document is also available in PDF format.
Parental alienation syndrome: The lost parents’ perspective by Despina Vassiliou. This is her Masters thesis presented at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The thesis is a qualitative study of the alienated parent's perceptions of their experienes with PAS. This document is not yet available PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Two Step Approach towards a Solution by L. F. Lowenstein as published in Contemporary Family Therapy, Volume 20, Number 4, December, 1998, p. 505-520. This article is from the UK and talks about the advantages to all parties in mediating to prevent PAS, rather than moving straight into the adversarial system. This document is also available in PDF format.
The Burgess Decision and the Wallerstein Brief by Richard A. Gardner from Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 26(3):425-431, 1998. This article addresses the problems of unrestricted mobility in cases where a parent is inducing PAS -- and the damage done to the children and non-custodial parent. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
MMPI-2 Validty Scales and Suspected Parental Alienation Syndrome as published by Jeffrey C. Siegel and Joseph S. Langford in the American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Volume 16, Number 4, 1998, p. 5-14. An interesting article that looks at tying those who use parental alienation to the responses on the MMPI-2 test (a test often given my assessors to the parents). The material here is of most interest to professionals who administer and read such tests, but it does represent an early stop in identifying problem areas. This article is also available in PDF format.
Alienation Revisted as presented by Mr. Paul Lodge, FCOA, at the Third National Family Court Conference October 20-24 in Melbourse, Australia. This article is conference notes that were initially taken in PDF formation from the conference site. The conference material has moved several times so that a good link is not available. This is conference material, so make some allowances for missing points and references that are not used, please. The original PDF document is available here.
Intervention-guided single case-help and parental alienation syndrome (PAS) as presented by Dr. Werner G. Leitner at the XXI International School Psychology Colloquium held from 31 July - 4 August 1998 in Riga, Latvia, and published in Published in Identity & Self Esteem: Interactions of Students, Family, & Society, eds. S. Sebre, M. Rascevska, S. Miezite, pp. 253-260, Riga: SIA. This article was initially taken from Dr. Leitner's site at http://www.uni-bamberg.de/~ba2gp4/frame.htm, but it appears to have moved. This document is not yet available in PDF format.
Recommendations for Dealing with Parents Who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their Children as published by Dr. Richard A. Gardner in the Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Volume 28(3/4), 1998, p. 1-21. This well laid-out article gives Gardners's suggested course of treatment for dealing with the various levels of PAS and in handling the inducing parent. This article is also available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome - A Judicial Response? as published by Dr. Susan Maidment in Family Law, May 1998, p. 264-6. This article gives a quick look at some of the success in dealing with PAS in the UK, but the problem with recognition of PAS by the lower courts despite the law that should make it important. Since PAS cases are apparently rarely reported in the reference cases, this becomes a difficult task. This article is also available in PDF format.
Parental Alienation is Open Heart Surgery: It Needs More than a Band-Aid to Fix It by Kathleen Niggemyer as published in the California Western Law Review, Volume 34, 1998, p 567-589. This article is talks about parental alienation and, while rejecting the work of Garnder and Turkat (although for the wrong reasons, and generally based on the misrepresentations of others) acknowledges that parental alienation exists -- syndrome or not. The author then looks at the U.S. tort (i.e. suing) solutions that are available and indicates that there is not that much that can be done under the "alienation of affection" rules (in Canada the Supreme Court has basically rejected "alienation of affection" as ever being in the law), but indicates that there may be some ability to deal with it under "purposeful infliction of emotional distress." The auther feels that a truckload of therapists (the author is not a therapist) and reporting back to the court annually will make some sort of a difference for how the children deal with severe alienation. This article has also been put into PDF format.
Identifying Cases of Parent Alienation Syndrome--Part I by Leona M. Kopetski as published in The Colorado Lawyer, February 1998, Volume 27, Number 2 p 65-68 (also available in PDF format), and
Identifying Cases of Parent Alienation Syndrome--Part II by Leona M. Kopetski as published in The Colorado Lawyer, February 1998, Volume 27, Number 3 p 61-64 (also available in PDF format)
These articles deal with evidence of PAS that pre-dated Gardners original work and talks about the impact of PAS on children. The final comments on the second part talks about the significance of sexual reproduction, and equivalent psychological nature of this...."If children are allowed free access to these different people, they do not need a perfect parent. It is not individual parental mistakes that harm the development of children. It is the exclusion of these different people that places them in danger....".
The Emerging Problem of Parental Alienation by Caroline Willbourne and Lesley-Anne Cull, as published in Family Law, December 1997, p. 807-8. This document is meant for lawyers and provides an overview of things to look at that indicate parental alienation (though I doubt that lawyers see the children enough to tell) but also talks about the damage done to the children in leaving them in the residential care of the alienating parent.. This document is also available in PDF format.
Management of Visitation Interference by Ira Daniel Turkat, Ph.D. as published in The Judges' Journal (Number 36) of the American Bar Association in the Spring of 1997. This document is meant for judges and is very strong and specific about the types of therapy and the considerations in orders that are required to handle access problems when Parental Alienation Syndrome or Divorce-Related Malicious Mother Syndrome in involved. This document is also available in PDF format.
Summary of the Practice Parameters for Child Custody Evaluation as published on the website of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as approved in 1997 and published in their Journal. Parental alienation is recognised as the serious problem that it is. This particular page as also been captured in PDF format.
Perspectives on Parental Alienation, Child Custody and Dispute Resolution Systems by Anita Vestal was an award winning essay in the American Bar Association's Section on Dispute Resolution and used to be able to be found, in a less formatted form at http://www.abanet.org/dispute/comwin.html -- but no more it appears. This paper is also available in PDF format. This is a good summary of PAS meant for lawyers and discusses such things as the problems with mediation and joint custody when PAS is involved.
The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (Part I) by Deirdre Conway Rand as published in the American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Volume 15, Number 3, 1997. This came from files at Aktive Fedre, a new fathers' group in Norway (with minor cleaning by FACT) and is kept in two pieces due to the size of the HTML file. These files have also been put into a single file in PDF format.
The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (Part II) by Deirdre Conway Rand as published in the American Journal of Forensic Psychology, Volume 15, Number 4, 1997. This came from Aktive Fedre as well (with minor cleaning by FACT) and is kept in three pieces due to the size of the HTML file. These files have also been put into a single file in PDF format.
These are excellent articles and deal with not only the psychological aspects of PAS, but the legal process and judicial recognition (mostly in the US) of PAS. We would strongly recommend reading them, and then perhaps distributing them to judges, lawyers, social workers, psychologists, journalists, etc. who deal with, or are interested in, the children of divorce.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Age-Old Custody Problem by Michael R. Walsh and J. Michael Bone from the June 1997 issue of The Florida Bar Journal (p. 93-96). This is also available in PDF format. This is an excellent article for officers of the courts and parents in looking at the face of PAS, the problems with dealing with it, and their roles in protecting the children.
Interference with Parental Rights of Noncustodial Parent as Grounds for Modification of Child Custody by Edward B. Borris from the Divorce Litigation, January, 1997. This is a heavily referenced, to US cases, of the handling of alienation and access denial in the United States. A good start when looking for precedents. This document is not yet avilable in PDF format.
Relocation as a Strategy to Interfere with the Child-Parent Relationship by Ira Daniel Turkat, Ph.D. from the American Journal of Family Law, Volume 11, 39-41 (1996). This article talks about the unhealthy relocation of children to interfere with parental contact and identifies some of the risk factors associated with this. A good article to look at for casting some question on relocations. This document is available in PDF format.
Understanding and Collaboratively Treating Parental Alienation Syndrome by Kenneth H. Waldron, Ph.D. and David E. Joanis, J. D. from the American Journal of Family Law, Volume 10, 121-133 (1996). This is an good article and attempts to broaden the discussion of the nature of PAS by examining the alienating parent, the target parent, and the family system, as well as the techniques used in and results of parental alienation. It also discusses the adversarial system, and the roles of the parties if there is truly a concern about protecting the children. -This document is also available in PDF format.
Children's Alignment with Parents in Highly Conflicted Custody Cases by Anita K. Lampel discusses the personality characteristics measured for childer who aligned with a parent (the parent "the child felt provided more empathy and understood the child's age-specific concerns"), nonaligned children, and their parents. In the study about equal numbers (actually a bit more) of the children indicated that father was the "preferred parent". This study was published in Family and Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 34, No. 2, April 1996, 229-239. This paper is also available in PDF format.
A Therapist's View of Parental Alienation Syndrome by Mary Lund discusses the nature of PAS and the structure of therapy groups that could be used. It was published in Family and Conciliation Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, July 1995. This paper is also available in PDF format.
Divorce-Related Malicious Mother Syndrome by Ira Daniel Turkat as published in the Journal of Family Violence, Volume 10, No. 3, 1995, p 253-264. This article takes a look at a condition involving somewhat acting like a very severe PAS inducer, but with no other mental disorder affecting behaviour. It is interesting to read. This document has also been put into a PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: A 'Hidden' Facet of Custody Disputes by Lisa A. Cook, who was apparently a law student at the time. This is a award winning paper, the Lieff Award, of the Canadian Bar Association (CBA), a voluntary organisation of lawyers. That particular organisation has been co-opted to represent only feminist and lesbian viewpoints at this point through their LEAF group (Legal Education and Action Fund for Women) with a strong conviction that women should never be accountable. The CBA itself presented its official position that access denial is not a problem, and does not occur in Canada, to the Special Joint Senate/House Committee on Custody and Access. This article takes a look at PAS, and Canadian law, as it was effective at that time. The position of the paper is very much out of sync with the current stance of LEAF and the CBA. I would note that the author concludes:Thus, to search for a solution to P.A.S. is illusory. P.A.S. is multi-faceted in terms of its onset, development, and outcomes. At this point, awareness of the existence of P.A.S. should be given optimum importance. Although this awareness may not encourage an immediate awareness in alienating parents, it may eventually create an atmosphere wherein parents will not feel the need to alienate. Perhaps this will happen when the legalities surrounding divorce become less alienating -- when the truth is not being sacrificed for 'justice" in custody battles. Only then can the parameters of P.A.S. be fully explored., Only then will custody battles have a chance of becoming custody evaluations.I would note that Ms. Cook's SIN indicates that she was likely on a student visa at the time, and there is no indication that she is currently practicing law in Canada (at least under that name). Pity. This document has also been put into a PDF format.
Custody and Visitation Interference: Alternative Remedies by Joy M. Feinberg and Lori S. Loeb as published in the AML Journal, Winter 1994, Volume 12, Number 2, p 271-284 (the publication of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers). This article talks about the remedies in the court to the handling of parental alienation syndrome of varying degrees of severity, and to the kidnapping of children. Interestingly, it also talks of the (then) new recouse of tort action (suing for damages in civil court) as another action that can be taken. The article is also available in PDF format.
Child Visitation Interference in Divorce by Ira Daniel Turkat from Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 737-742, 1994. This article sets the structure of the various forms of visitation interference and talks about how the courts and the lack of research have become big problems in contributing to this form of child abuse. The article has also been put into a PDF format.
The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases by John Dunne and Marsha Hedrick. This was published in the Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 21(3/4), 1994. This article looks at sixteen cases that met Dr. Gardner's criteria for Parental Alienation Syndrome. It shows that traditional interventions in these cases were ineffective, and that the only effective treatment included a change in custody of the alienated child. This material is also available in PDF format.
The Detrimental Effects on Women of the Gender Egalitarianism of Child-Custody Dispute Resolution Guidelines by Richard A. Gardner from the Academy Forum Volume 38, Number 1,2 p 10-13 (Spring/Summer 1994), the publication of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis. This article discusses the history of custody over the ages and the possible reasons for the high incidence of parental alienation seen now. The article has also been put into a PDF format.
Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Developmental Analysis of a Vulnerable Population by Joseph L. Price, Ph.D. and Kerry S. Pioske, RN, MS, ANP. This was published in the Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, Vol. 32, No. 11, 1994 p 9-12. This article provides an overview of PAS for nurses and some description of how it fits into psychological framework of the child and the family. This material is also available in PDF format.
The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Dangerous Aura of Reliability by Cheri L. Wood (no apparent qualifications) as published in the Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, Vol. 29, p 1367-1415 (1994). This article is the paper usually brought up as some to supposedly "destroy" the concept of Parental Alienation Syndrome. It is interesting to read, especially in light of the collection of material on this site. It presents the concept that Dr. Gardner is the only person who believes PAS exisits. It states that there are no articles about PAS in peer reviewed publications (take a look at the site, there have been more than 50 such articles since 1988 and a number of them from Gardner himself). It purports that there is no empirical data for PAS, while a number of the articles here ARE emprical studies, and some took place even before Gardner coined the term. Well, it is a PAS paper that should be of interest if arguing in court (especially in the US). This material is not yet available in PDF format.
When You Suspect the Worst: Bad-faith relocation, fabricated child sexual abuse, and parental alienation by Carol Holstein Sanders. This was published in the Family Advocate in the Winter, 1993 edition. This article looks at alienation in context of the other common conditions associated with alienating parents using children as weapons against the other parent. This article is a simple and general piece (well, it was written for lawyers) but amply indicates the tie in on Parental Alienation with many other actions often seen on relationship breakdowns. This material is also available in PDF format.
Intractable Access: Is There a Cure? by Ken Byrne and Lawrie Maloney. This was published in the Australian Family Lawyer v. 8(4), 1993, p. 22. This article looks at a particular case of parental alienation syndrome, and the use of supervised transitions in order to overcome the lack of access. This article is also available in PDF format.
Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome by Glenn F. Cartwright as published in the American Journal of Family Therapy, 21 (3), 205-215 (1993). This is available through a link to his personal site at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. An excellent paper. He seems to have / make use of a site called "P. A. I. N." (Parental Alienation Information Network") at http://www.education.mcgill.ca/pain/ for the disemmination of material. This particular paper as also been put into a PDF format.
Family Wars: The Alienation of Children, Composite case from actual examples by Peggy Ward and J. Campbell Harvey was published in the New Hampshire Bar Journal, Volume 34, No.1, March 1993. A slightly different version, but with the same title, composed all of Newletter #9 (from 1993) of The Professional Academy of Custody Evaluators (PACE) is available through a link to PACE's Web site at http://www.pace-custody.org. This is an excellent and comprehensive paper. The PACE version is available in many different formats across the Web. The PACE verson of this paper has been captured in PDF format, and the New Hampshire paper has been printed in PDF format.
Mediation: Parental Alienation Syndrome by Mary Lund from the Family Law News, the official publication of the State Bar of California Family Law Section, Volume 15, Number 1, in the Spring of 1992. It provides a very brief overview of the issues with lawyers to help them not contribute to the child abuse known as Parental Alienation. This particular paper as also been put in PDF format.
Le syndrome d'aliénation parentale (Parental Alienation Syndrome) by Anne-France Goldwater. This is an article that was originally published in Dévelopments Récents en Droit Familial 1991, P. 121-145, but that was made available through http://www.goldwaterdube.com/ as a Microsoft Word document. There are some other good papers there. Despite the French title, most of this document is in English. It provides a good summary from a Canadian, and specifically a Quebec, legal viewpoint. The Word version of this particular paper as also been put in PDF format.
Legal and Psychotherapeutic Approaches to the Three Types of Parental Alienation Syndrome Families by Richard A. Gardner, M.D.. This article was published in the Court Review Volume 28, Number 1, Spring 1991, p. 14-21, the publication of the American Judges Association. This paper describes the three types of PAS and gives some specific pieces of information that judges, at least judges that care, need to know when coming across PAS in the courtroom. You need to read this one. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Mental Health Professionals in Child Custody Disputes: Advocates or Impartial Examiners? by Kenneth Byrne and published in the Autralian Family Lawyer, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1991, p.8. This is article looks at the differences in the functioning and conclusions of an advocate and an examiner. This article is not yet available in PDF format.
Custody Disputes Fueling "Parental Alienation Syndrome written about Richard A. Gardner, M.D.. This is a news article was published in the Family Practice News, Volume 20, Number 24, December 15-31, 1990, p 7. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Preventing Parentectomy Following Divorce by Frank S. Williams, M.D.. This article was the keynote address at the Fifth Annual Conference of National Council for Children's Rights held in Washington DC on October 20, 1990. This paper describes problems with the process and motivations for separation of the children from a parent and talks about some of the preventative actions a parent can take. The paper was taken from the Men's Rights Agency site at http://www.ecn.net.au/~mra/page27b.htm and reformated slightly. This site has considerable amounts of interesting data, and can be accessed through the URL http://www.ecn.net.au/~mra/. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Brainwashing in Custody Cases: The Parental Alienation Syndrome by Kenneth Byrne, PhD.. This article was published in the Australian Family Lawyer, v. 4(3), 1989, p.1ff. This paper gives a general overview of PAS, and provides lawyers with a list of things to be aware of that may indicate that alienation is taking place. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Judges Interviewing Children in Custody/Visitation Litigation by Richard A. Gardner, M.D.. This article was published in the New Jersey Family Lawyer, Volume VII, Number 2, August/September 1987, p 26ff. This paper describes the problems that judges have in interviewing children affected by PAS directly, and gives some guidance on the approach and questions that a judge who wants to directly interview the children should take into account. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Post-Divorce Therapy With Highly Conflicted Families by Anita K. Lampel, Ph.D.. This article was published in The Independent Practitioner Volume 6 Number 3, July 1986, p. 22-26, the Bulletin of the Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice, Division 42 of the Americal Psychological Association. This paper describes the success of conventional techniques on mild cases, but indicates that conventional techniques do not work well on severe cases, and that a change in residency has a much greater chance of working. Some of the improvements are discussed. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation by Richard A. Gardner, M.D.. This article was published in the Academy Forum, Volume 29, Number 2, Summer, 1985, p. 3-7. This paper, in the journal of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis is the original paper that introduced the term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" and started the debate. The paper as also been put in PDF format.
Understanding and effectively dealing with Hostile-Aggressive Parenting (HAP) [PDF only] is a paper published by Family Conflict Resolution Services. This paper has been of wide-spread interest. HAP as described in a pattern of parenting that encompasses a number of problematic behaviours what would be associated with an alienating parent under PAS who is purposefully seeking to disrupt contact with a parent. The paper seems to be dynamic in its form, and we cannot keep up with some of the changes. The version on this site is currently the May 2004 version. The November 2003 version and February 2003 version are also available.. You may find a more recent version at http://familyconflict.freeyellow.com/General1/RecommendationsHostile-AgressiveParenting.pdf It is interesting in its scope and relatively easy to read.
A Guide to the Parental Alienation Syndrome by Stan Hayward. This is the second edition of Stan Hayward's paper. It provides much more specific information and, in particular, some good UK-oriented information (it is interesting to see how things work/don't work there too). Hayward is the Research Officer at Families Need Fathers, which maintains a website at www.fnf.org.uk. Our copy of the paper is more complete than theirs, so this is a locally stored article. This particular paper is not yet available in PDF format.
A Guide to the Parental Alienation Syndrome by Stan Hayward. This is available through a link to http://www.coeffic.demon.co.uk, the UK Men and Father's Rights page. An excellent paper. This particular paper as also been captured in PDF format.
The Father’s Guide: Coping with Parental Alienation by the Texas Fathers for Equal Rights (T. F. E. R.). This is is a discussion, by fathers, of some of the strategies fathers should consider in re-establishing a relationship with a child who has been alienated but is once again visiting. TFER's seems to have moved, so this page is a copy of the article. This particular paper was captured in PDF format.
Dr. Douglas Darnall, a therapist, expert witness and author in Ohio, has a great collection of information on Parental Alienation - the stages that usually occur before the more serious PAS kicks at his site at http://www.parentalalienation.com/PASdirectory.htm. Information on his book is, of course, there too. There is some useful stuff to consider there. If you are interested, Dr. Parnell was the guest at an on-line chat session at Concerned Counselling on February 3, 1998, and that transcript is available here.
Parental Alienation Syndrome is an article The Family Court Reform Council of America. This is is a discussion of PAS in general. Their home page can be found at http://www.familycourts.com/. This particular page as also been captured in PDF format.
Some Reported Results of Access Denial and Parental Alienation
Increased suicidal tendencies were found in people who had experienced the loss of the father. Bron, Strack & Rudolph, Univ. of Gottingen, Germany, 1991
Children showed the most behaviour problems if their parents were in a legal conflict and the visitation was not frequent or regular. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1990
British researchers have found adults who suffer parent loss due to separation or divorce have significantly higher risk of developing agoraphobia withpanic attacks and panic disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1989
Scandinavian research has found a significantly higher number of adults who attempted suicide had lost a parent through divorce in childhood. Acta Psychiatrica, Scandinavia, 1990, 1993
Children who were separated from their father for a period of three months or longer and between the ages of 6 months to 5 years old, suffer a higher risk (2.5 to 5 times higher) of hysteria, emotional disorders and conduct disorder than other children. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 1988
September 10, 2000